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The Five Lombardies - (1849 A.D.) by machinekng The Five Lombardies - (1849 A.D.) by machinekng
PoD: The Austrians, panicked about the Hungarian revolution, redeploy much of Field Marshal Radetzky's army to swiftly crunch the revolution. While Radetzky was able to avoid suffering a major defeat at the hands of Sardinia-Piedmont, he ultimately accepts his orders to establish a truce. 


The Peace of 1849 was formalized in January. With greater troubles continuing back home in Hungary and the Balkans, the Austrians reluctantly gave the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venice. In exchange, the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont was not allowed to expand its borders, and the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venice would be reorganized into a pair of independent duchies. For the Italian Republicans and Nationalists that had risen up in the region during the Springtime of Nations, this act was seen as a betrayal by Charles Albert, and many believed that the duchies would be reabsorbed by Austria in due time. With the Sardinians utterly battered, Charles Albert withdrew his forces out of Lombardy. However, the provisional republics that had been established in these territories, had no love for their new monarchs, and a Second Italian Revolution broke-out in the Summer of 1849, with the Republics of Lombardia and San Marco being restored. Modena too, had suffered revolution, with the Duke being forced to flee. The provisional government in Modena allied with the new Republics. Parma was the next to fall. While the duchy had been lucky to avoid revolutionary fervor, its tranquility could not last, and a new provisional government there also forced the duke to flee.

While the Austrian government detested republicanism, and many wanted an invasion of the Lombard Republics, the Austrians ultimately decided to delay their intervention. The establishment of these new republican states, while a clear and present danger, also strengthened Austria's influence over the South. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal State, which had both sent troops to support Charles Albert, were frightened both by domestic rebellions and the new republican alliance, and begged to reestablish stronger ties with Austria. The Tuscans even staged a small intervention of their own, sending troops north to secure the border, including seizing strips of Modenan border territory. The new alliance also threw a wrench in Charles Albert's plans to unify Italy. While the Lombardies were not against the project, they soon had the standing to negotiate on their own terms, and for many, a monarchy was no longer a nesecary evil.

The Confederation of the Four Lombardies was officially established in the Winter of 1849, when delegates from the four provisional governments met to draft guidelines for a provisional confederal government and a future constituent convention. One of the first acts of the new provisional government was to address the grievances of the Commune of Pontremoli. Pontemoli was an autonomous commune of Tuscany, had been occupied by Modena a year before the war over a trade dispute. The leaders of the Commune asked for the provisional government to restore their former status, a request to which even the Modenans were partial to. The new Comune was inducted into the confederation as a new, albeit unequal member, leading to the Four Lombardies becoming Five.


This scenario was inspired by this quote from an article about

"'Stupidly-named Italy' is a cliché in which, after unification, a territory called 'Kingdom of the Three Sicilies,' 'Kingdom of the Two Italies,' or, 'Kingdom of the Three Sicilies, Four Italies, and Two Lombardies' blots the timeline’s landscape."

Reading that, I knew it would be possible to have at least four-five lombardies.
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March 3
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